تاريخ النشر: 14 نوفمبر 2017
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Plumbing (which comes from the Latin word plumbum, which means lead, as pipes were once made from lead) is the job of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for drinking water systems and getting rid of waste. A plumber is a person who fixes or puts in piping systems, plumbing fixtures and equipment like water heaters. Many plumbers are construction workers. The plumbing industry is an important part of every developed economy because people need clean water and safe ways to move and store waste.[1 -
Plumbing refers to a system of pipes and fixtures put in a building to move water and the get cleared of waste that's in water. Plumbing is different from water and sewage systems because plumbing system serves one building, while sewage and water systems serve a group of buildings or a city.
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History[change | change source -
Roman lead pipe at the Roman Baths in Bath, England, with a folded seam
Plumbing was very rare until modern cities grew in the 19th century. At about the same time, public health leaders began wanting better systems to get cleared of waste. Before this, people got rid of waste by dumping it onto the ground or into rivers and collecting it. However, there were some plumbing pipes in the city settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 B.C.[2 - Plumbing was also used during the ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese civilizations as they built public baths and needed drinking water, and somewhere to drain waste. The Romans used pipe inscriptions to stop people from stealing water.
These systems did not improve much over the years. There were no improvements from the time of the Roman aqueducts and sewers until the 19th century. Eventually the development of sewage systems and separate, underground water got rid of open sewage ditches and cesspools. Most large cities today send solid wastes through pipes to sewage treatment plants. Treatment makes the water more pure before it goes into streams or other bodies of water and separates water from waste. Most places stopped for drinking water after World War II because of the dangers of lead poisoning, using lead. At this time, copper piping was started because it was safer than using lead pipes.[3 -
Materials[change | change source -
Water systems in ancient times used gravity to move water. They used channels or pipes usually made of bamboo, lead, clay or stone. Today, water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes are now made of copper,[4 - brass, plastic, or other material that is nontoxic. Drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-iron, and lead. Lead isn't used in pipes today because it can be poisonous.[5 - [6 - [7 -
Piping being placed for a sink
For working on fittings and pipes plumber wrench
The 'straight' sections of plumbing systems are of pipe or tube. Where a tube is made through extrusion, a pipe is made by casting or welding. Pipe has thicker walls and might be threaded or welded, where tubes have thinner walls, and needs special joining techniques including 'brazing', 'compression fitting', 'crimping', or for plastics, 'solvent welding'.
Along with the straight pipe or tubing, many fittings are required in plumbing systems, for example valves, elbows, tees, and unions.
Plumbing fixtures are designed for the people who use the water. Some examples of fixtures include water closets (also known as toilets), urinals, bidets, showers, bathtubs, utility and kitchen sinks, drinking fountains, ice makers, humidifiers, air washers, fountains, and eye wash stations.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piping_and_plumbing_fitting - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piping_and_plumbing_fitting